Speech Therapy 101, Inc. - Empowering Parents
 Speech Milestones

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Developmental Speech Milestones:

By 18 months -Child produces 3 to 6 different consonant sounds with each child having a little different consonant inventory.

By 24 months –Initial Sounds - /p, b,m, t, n, d, h, k, g/ Final Sounds - /p, m, n/ Produces Most Vowel Sounds Correctly and at least 6-8 different consonant sounds. 

By 28 months –Initial Sounds – /d, f/and /y/ Final Sounds - /s, d, k,f/ and “ng” 

By 32 months–Initial Sounds - /w/ Final Sounds  - /t, b, r/  

By 36 months Initial Sounds - /s/ Final Sounds - /l, g/ and “er” endings. Child uses at least 9-12 different consonant sounds.  

By 40 monthsInitial Sounds - /l, r/ Some consonant blends – bl, br, tr Final Sounds – /v/ and “sh”    

By 44 monthsInitial Sounds – “sh” and“ch” and Final Sound – “ch”   

By 48 months –Initial – sp, st, kl 

After 48 months–Initial - /z, v/ and “j”and th” Final - /z/ and “th” and “j”       

RED FLAGS for Speech Disorders

Limited consonant sound use results in unintelligible speech and often indicates a motor speech disorder Apraxia or Phonological Disorder.

Numerous Vowel Errors    
Most children have mastered nearly all vowel sounds by age 2. Some errors are still acceptable are age 2, but by age 3, all vowels be mastered (with exception of /r/ vowels). 
Wide spread Deletion of Initial Consonants   
By 2 a child should use at least 3 to 4 different consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.  By 3 a child should have a large repertoire of initial consonants.   
Substitution of Back Consonants /k/ and /g/ or /h/ for a variety of Consonants     
This is atypical phonological development and should be targeted even in very young children.   
Deletion of Final Consonants after age 3      
By 24 months in language delayed children some final consonant deletions are expected, but by 36 months, all children should be producing words with ending consonant sounds.  Again there is variation in individual children, but for the most part, parents should understand close to all of what a child says by age 3, and strangers should understand all of what a child says by age 4, even if errors are still present.        

For more information about speech disorders and how to treat them, check out these links.
American Speech, Language Hearing Association: www.asha.org
The Hanen Program: www.hanen.org
Beckman Oral Motor: www.beckmanoralmotor.com
Handwriting Without Tears: www.hwtears.com
The Scerts Model: www.scerts.com
The Floortime Foundation: www.floortime.org
The National Stuttering Association: www.nsastutter.org
Autism Institute: www.autisminstitute.com
The Autism Education Network: www.autismeducation.net
The Autism Society of America: www.autism-soceity.org
Beyond Play: www.beyondplay.com
SPD Network: www.spdnetwork.org
The Prompt Institute: www.promptinstitute.com
The Kaufman Speech Praxis Technique: www.kidspeech.com
Picture Exchange Communication System: www.pecs.com
Talk Tools Oral Motor Program: www.talktoolstm.com
Baby Signs® Program: www.babysigns.com
Zero to Three: www.zerotothree.org